Lots of files, but only one in my head

26 Jan 2015 · by David DeSandro

Right now, if you wanted to use Flickity using every source file, you would need to hook up 17 different JavaScript files. I actually do this for the sandbox demos used for development.

<!-- dependencies -->
<script src="../bower_components/get-style-property/get-style-property.js"></script>
<script src="../bower_components/get-size/get-size.js"></script>
<script src="../bower_components/matches-selector/matches-selector.js"></script>
<script src="../bower_components/eventEmitter/EventEmitter.js"></script>
<script src="../bower_components/eventie/eventie.js"></script>
<script src="../bower_components/doc-ready/doc-ready.js"></script>
<script src="../bower_components/classie/classie.js"></script>
<!-- Flickity source -->
<script src="../js/utils.js"></script>
<script src="../js/unipointer.js"></script>
<script src="../js/cell.js"></script>
<script src="../js/prev-next-button.js"></script>
<script src="../js/page-dots.js"></script>
<script src="../js/player.js"></script>
<script src="../js/drag.js"></script>
<script src="../js/animate.js"></script>
<script src="../js/cell-change.js"></script>
<script src="../js/flickity.js"></script>

Granted, this looks like madness. If you're a front-end developer worth your salt, seeing 17 consecutive <script> tags should make you cringe. But this madness has a purpose.


Encapsulation is a powerful programming concept. I like to think of it in a literal sense: encapsulation means making capsules, or in other words, breaking down something large into smaller pieces — making it easier to swallow.

Typically, encapsulation is exhibited in how you structure code. Consider this function used to check support for a browser feature:

var supportsConditionalCSS = ( function() {
  var supports;
  return function checkSupport() {
    if ( supports !== undefined ) {
      return supports;
    // style body's :after and check that
    var style = document.createElement('style');
    var cssText = document.createTextNode('body:after { content: "foo"; display: none; }');
    style.appendChild( cssText );
    document.head.appendChild( style );
    var afterContent = getComputedStyle( document.body, ':after' ).content;
    // check if able to get :after content
    supports = afterContent.indexOf('foo') != -1;
    document.head.removeChild( style );
    return supports;

This can be simplified conceptually:

var checkSupport = ( function() {
  var support;
  function check() {
    // if already checked, return that answer
    if ( support !== undefined ) {
      return support
    // check support one-time-only
    // lots of logic to check support
    support = // ...
    return support;
  return check;

The checkSupport logic is enclosed in a IIFE. It's internal variables, support and check() are kept private within the IIFE, so they don't have naming conflicts with outside variables, nor can they be interfered with. There's a performance benefit, as data within the IIFE can be garbage collected. The only exposed piece of logic is checkSupport().

There are multiple technical benefits to using encapsulation: DRYer code, less conflicts, garbage collection. But I find the biggest benefit is a more human one. Encapsulation helps me keep the story straight in my head.


Humans think in stories. This is why movies aren't abstract audio-visual sensory experiences, but audio-visual narratives. This is why I can't name the Canadian Prime Minister but I can name the lords and ladies of all seven kingdoms of Game of Thrones (apologies to Stephen Harper, had to look it up).

When we write code, we are writing instructions — stories for machines to act out. It may seem like the code your write exists only on the screen, but it also occupies space in your mind. The longer the code, the harder it is to remember how the story goes. By breaking up the code into smaller parts, you no longer have to keep the entire mental model in your head. You can focus on the one piece you're working on.

Take Flickity's Player class. Its one purpose is to tick every couple of seconds and advance the gallery to the next cell. I could have built this functionality right into the core flickity.js file. By making it a separate concept, the code makes for a cleaner API.

this.player = new Player( this );
// pauses stops playing, but can be unpaused
// unpauses resumes playing, if not stopped while paused

A clean API is a programmer's way of saying an easy story. The Flickity instance doesn't need to keep track of the player's state. Nor does the player need to know how the Flickity instance works. Both classes are self-contained in little stories.

Flickity is composed of many of these little stories — one to handle the previous & next buttons, one to handle the bottom dots, one to handle individual cells. There's also dependencies that provide the foundation. While it may appear that the project is growing out of control, it feels manageable because each component has its own separate story, with a well-defined purpose. I can manage each one individually, and then put them together to make something special.

Encapsulating functionality into separate files and separate projects is not a new concept for developers, but it is new for front-end developers. Putting together all these pieces is a challenge all its own — one that I'll discuss in a future post.


If you're just joining us, I'm making a new gallery library! The story thus far...

Flickity beta is out. Give 'er a flick!